NatureClean has developed an effective bio - augmentation program for municipal wastewater collection systems and institutional grease traps, which virtually eliminates stoppages brought on by excessive grease within the system. At the heart of this program is NatureClean's, NatureClean-33, a unique microbial-based product containing 58 species of microencapsulated grease-eating bacteria. NatureClean's patent pending micro-encapsulation technology provides NatureClean-33 with stability, increased shelf life and enhanced efficacy.
The select microbial species that comprise NatureClean-33 are highly efficient at producing hydrolytic enzymes to catalyze the hydrolysis of grease, fats, proteins and starches resulting in trouble free sewer lines, lift stations and grease traps.
NatureClean's formulation contains proprietary species that are effective under a wide range of environmental conditions. They provide NatureClean-33 with the ability to biodegrade difficult substances such as phenols, detergents, alcohols, hydrocarbons, ligno-cellulose, organic solvents, pharmaceuticals and a broad range of aliphatic and aromatic compounds. NatureClean-33 is available in both a liquid (vegetative state) and dry (spore and microencapsulated vegetative state) formulation. In addition to NatureClean-33, NatureClean offers a Biochemical Oxygen Release (SRO2) product to increase dissolved oxygen levels thereby improving the efficiency of the microbial component.
Aside from being efficacious NatureClean's revolutionary microbial augmentation program is extremely cost effective. The average program cost for maintaining a typical 8 inch main is less than 2 cents per foot per week.
NatureClean provides you with clearly defined parameters, which walk you through both the cleanup and maintenance phase of the program. Once in place this program will greatly reduce if not altogether rid the wastewater collection system of costly grease blockages. When used as directed in grease traps NatureClean-33 greatly reduces the volume of grease thereby reducing the need for pump outs. In addition the grease trap program will drastically reduce the number of blockages and back ups incurred within the secondary lines.
Contains select bacterial species highly efficient at producing hydrolytic enzymes to catalyze the hydrolysis of grease, oils, fats, (lipases) proteins, (proteases) starches (amylases) and cellulose and ligno-cellulose(cellulases) @ a minimum concentration of 1,000,000,000 CFU per gram.
NatureClean - 33 contains 58 different bacterial strains, each selected for its efficiency at degrading certain waste materials. With the bacterial product, the content of the waste stream determines how many enzymes are produced, in what sequence, at what concentration, and for what duration. The bacteria function as millions of tiny enzyme factories to produce the correct balance of degradative power.
This formulation has been derived after a 20 yr long trial and error process. It has been specifically formulated to break down through aerobic and facultative anaerobic action, all the biodegradable substances in the wastewater. It is also formulated with H2S degrading bacteria and able to work in a pH range of 2.0 to 10.0.
NatureClean - 33 can be site specifically formulated for the breakdown of high amounts of nitrates, nitrites, phosphorus, salts, specific pharmaceuticals and various other chemicals. NatureClean-33 also contains SRO (slow release oxygen) to allow full activity of the bacteria even in very low oxygen situations.
Basic Microbiology For Wastewater Treatment
- Bacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms, most of which are microscopic.
- Bacteria occur in soil, water, and air, and as symbionts, parasites or pathogens of man and other animals and plants.
- Bacteria are either aerobes-growing in the presence of air or oxygen, or are anaerobes-growing without air or oxygen. Some bacteria are "switch-hitters" (facultative anaerobic) who can switch to grow from one environment (air or air-less) to the other.
- Besides bacteria, other microorganisms such as fungi (yeasts), protozoa, and micro-animals such as rotifers work in concert to affect water quality.
Which brings us to the main difference between viruses and bacteria—the way they reproduce.
Viral vs. Bacterial Reproduction
Bacteria contain the genetic blueprint (DNA) and all the tools (ribosomes, proteins, etc.) they need to reproduce themselves. Viruses are moochers. They contain only a limited genetic blueprint and they don't have the necessary building tools. They have to invade other cells and hijack their cellular machinery to reproduce. Viruses invade by attaching to a cell and injecting their genes or by being swallowed up by the cell.
What They Eat
Bacteria have a wide range of environmental and nutritive requirements.
Some bacteria are photosynthetic (foe-toe-sin-theh-tick)—they can make their own food from sunlight, just like plants. Also like plants, they give off oxygen. Other bacteria absorb food from the material they live on or in. Some of these bacteria can live off unusual "foods" such as iron or sulfur. The microbes that live in your gut absorb nutrients from the digested food you've eaten.
Most bacteria may be placed into one of three groups based on their response to gaseous oxygen. Aerobic bacteria thrive in the presence of oxygen and require it for their continued growth and existence. Other bacteria are anaerobic, and cannot tolerate gaseous oxygen, such as those bacteria that live in deep underwater sediments or those which cause bacterial food poisoning. The third group is the facultative anaerobes, which prefer growing in the presence of oxygen, but can continue to grow without it.
Bacteria may also be classified both by the mode by which they obtain their energy. Classified by the source of their energy, bacteria fall into two categories: heterotrophs and autotrophs. Heterotrophs derive energy from breaking down complex organic compounds that they must take in from the environment -- this includes saprobic bacteria found in decaying material, as well as those that rely on fermentation or respiration.
The other group, the autotrophs, fixes carbon dioxide to make their own food source; this may be fueled by light energy (photoautotrophic), or by oxidation of nitrogen, sulfur, or other elements (chemoautotrophic). While chemoautotrophs are uncommon, photoautotrophs are common and quite diverse. They include the cyanobacteria, green sulfur bacteria, purple sulfur bacteria, and purple nonsulfur bacteria. The sulfur bacteria are particularly interesting, since they use hydrogen sulfide as hydrogen donor, instead of water like most other photosynthetic organisms
Bacteria cultures are the only method that can eliminate the waste problem. They are living organisms that continually adapt and grow in the system. They consume the waste, chemicals, medicals; they do not move it from one place to another.
Many strains of bacteria will not eat grease, fats, oil, protein, phosphates, nitrates, sulfates or other different chemicals under any circumstances. They simply die off. The only effective formula is one that will biodegrade the entire different biodegradable that are uniquely found in the human / dairy / industrial waste. This requires a carefully selected formula. NatureClean includes bacteria strains that will degrade the entire different biodegradable found in the waste. The cultures were first developed in the laboratory and tested to find the best bacteria for breaking down waste. Then we tested them in dairy / human / industrial facilities to find the right formulations.
This formulation was developed over 20 years of careful experimentation and development.
Carefully selected means exactly that. Not every bacterium will consume each of the different substrates found in waste. As a matter of fact, there is no such thing as bacteria that prefer to eat all waste. Most bacteria would rather eat carbohydrates (sugars, starches, and cellulose) first. Next they will choose protein. After all that is gone, they will work on the fats and greases starting with the ones that are easiest to break down. Then there is the need for specialized bacteria to rid us of odors (H2S) and phosphate, nitrates, nitrites and sulfates. For instance, almost any grease enzyme combination or simple bacteria product will work to some extent in a restaurant line because the waste stream usually consists of a predictable, high quality grease. However, a municipal sewer carries everything known to man. At any given moment, you will find many varieties of chemicals, soap, petroleum products, cellulose, and numerous other compounds. Dairy waste is somewhat constant in that the foods cows eat are standard without too much variance. Therefore we have developed a very potent specialized combination of bacteria especially for C.A.F.O. (Confined Animal Feeding Operations) operations.
NatureClean has the ability to create "site specific" formulations for the break down of combinations of contaminants in a situation or a single contaminant, this includes pharmaceuticals.
In addition, the pH of the water can swing back and forth without notice. On top of this, the stream can change characteristics without warning when someone dumps something down the line. We have bacteria that are capable of efficiently working in a pH variance of 2 to 10.
If you want to clean a waste water system, you better use the big guns. Half measures and bad products simply will not get it done. To the best of our knowledge, NatureClean-33 contains more strains of specific bacteria than any other formula available, 58 strains. It is necessary to have this formula because of the complexity of dairy / human / industrial waste systems. Also note that our plate count is extremely high, the highest count we’ve ever seen.
While plate counts are important, they are not what determine the best product. Always remember that we are not playing a quantity game; we are playing a QUALITY game. If you could clean dairy ponds solely with a vast number of bacteria, no dairy would need you. If you take a plate count of almost any dairy pond, wastewater plant or septic system, you will find it loaded with bacteria. The plate count may even be higher than our formula. There plenty of bacteria in wastewater, you do not need more bacteria, you needs a whole new cast of characters, one that will handle the complexities of a wastewater.
In order to succeed you must put the right cast of characters on the scene at the right time. If a football coach wants to win a game, it’s better if he picks the team instead of taking the first eleven people who show up on game day. Just as the coach needs people with different skills to man his team, we need many strains of bacteria to win the war with waste effluent. On a football field, it’s called teamwork. In our systems, it’s called synergism.
Synergism is simply a group of bacteria working together to get the job done. For instance, a molecule of grease may consist of several compounds. One strain of bacteria cannot break it down. However, when the right team of bacteria goes to work, each consuming a different substrate (food), the compound is quickly consumed.
Bacteria are the main ingredients in the NatureClean Process. All the rest, air pumps, the membrane diffusers, (the oxygen generators, the ozone generator if very specific circumstances dictate their use), water pumps, bio filters, automated BOD and coliform testers, automated bacterial generation units and automated chlorinators are the supporting cast. They help to establish the living conditions for the rapid and efficient bio-degradation of all the contaminants in the wastewater. Used as directed, the NatureClean Systems will meet all NSF/ANSI Standard 40, Air Quality and EPA Standards to keep or obtain permits.
Most important, is the fact that NatureClean uses only naturally occurring bacteria. We do not use genetically engineered or altered strains. NatureClean maintains a strict adherence to the natural organic processes of nature.
Bacteria or Enzymes?
1. What are Bacteria?
Bacteria are single-celled organisms that do not have well-defined organelles such as a nucleus. The cells are typically enclosed in a rigid cell wall and a plasma membrane. Bacteria contain all of the genetic material necessary to reproduce, and they reproduce by simple cellular division. Bacteria show a wide range of nutrient requirements and energy-related metabolism. Some bacteria require only minerals and a carbon source such as sugar for growth, while others require more complex growth media. Bacteria play an extremely important role in recycling nutrients in the environment. Bacteria break down organic matter into simple compounds like carbon dioxide and water, and they cycle important nutrients such as nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Bacteria can migrate to areas that are rich in specific nutrients that they require for growth. Bacteria can also attach themselves to surfaces and form communities known as biofilms.
2. What are Enzymes?
An enzyme is a protein that acts as a catalyst. The enzyme is responsible for accelerating the rate of a reaction in which various substrates are converted to products through the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex. In general, each type of enzyme catalyzes only one type of reaction and will operate on only one type of substrate. This is often referred to as a "lock and key" mechanism. As a consequence, enzymes are highly specific and are able to discriminate between slightly different substrate molecules. In addition, enzymes exhibit optimal catalytic activity over a narrow range of temperature, ionic strength and pH.
3. Do enzymes break down any molecule or just specific ones and how specific do they get:
(Above). The specificity of an enzyme for it's substrate is generally a function of the enzyme's "active site" or binding site. The structure of the protein determines the range of substrates or "keys" that can fit into the lock. Most enzymes are exquisitely specific. That is, they react only with one specific substrate. Some enzymes, however, have a more flexible active site that can accommodate molecules that are closely related to the target substrate. In this case, there is typically a preferred substrate with which the enzyme reacts at a higher rate than with related compounds.
4. Can Enzymes adapt to different conditions and to different grease, oils and food:
Enzymes are not living things. They have no ability to adapt to changing conditions or substrate sources. Their level of activity is a function of these conditions. If they are not in optimal conditions, their activity decreases or stops.
5. How do bacteria break down any molecule or just specific and how specific do they get:
Bacteria have the capability of producing many different types of enzymes. They are living organisms that respond to their environment. In general, bacteria are capable of producing enzymes that degrade a wide variety of organic materials such as fats, oils, cellulose, xylan, proteins and starches. It is important to note that all of these materials are polymers that must be reacted with more than one type of enzyme in order to be efficiently degraded to their basic building blocks. Nature provides a specific "team" of enzymes to attack each type of polymer. For example, there are three different classes of enzymes (endocellulases, exocellulases, cellobiohydrolases) that are required to degrade a cellulose polymer into basic glucose units. All three types of enzymes are referred to as cellulases, but each class attacks a specific structure or substructure of the polymer. Acting individually, none of the cellulases is capable of efficiently degrading the polymer. Bacteria can produce the complete "team" of enzymes that are necessary to degrade and consume the organic materials present in their environment at any given time. Moreover, bacteria can produce multiple "teams" at the same time.
6. Can bacterium adapt to different conditions and to different grease, oils, proteins, chemicals and food:
Bacteria can adapt to a range of conditions and food supplies. They can change the type of enzymes that they produce if the food source changes. They can protect themselves from changes in environmental conditions by forming colonies, biofilms, or spores. Importantly, bacteria live in "communities" made up of different species. Each species fills a biological niche, and the population of each species grows or declines in response to the environment. For example, a community may contain certain species that efficiently degrade grease or proteins or salts and other species that thrive on cellulose.
7. How long do Enzymes work compared with Bacteria:
All enzymes have a limited half-life (minutes to days, depending on conditions). They are proteins that are biodegradable and are subject to damage by other enzymes (proteases), chemicals, and extremes of pH and temperature. An important difference between enzyme-based products and bacterial products is that the enzymes can't repair themselves or reproduce. Living bacteria, however, produce fresh enzymes on a continuous basis and can bounce back following mild environmental insults.
8. How quickly do high enzyme producing bacteria (Protease, lipase and Amylase are what are commonly used in NatureClean CAFO) produce enzymes? And in what quantities:
Production of enzymes begins as soon as the bacteria begin to grow. The cells must obtain nutrients from their surroundings, so they secrete enzymes to degrade the available food. The quantities of enzymes produced vary depending on the bacterial species and the culture conditions (e.g., nutrients, temperature, and pH) and growth rate. Hydrolytic enzymes such as
proteases, amylases, and cellulases, etc. are produced in the range of milligrams per liter to grams per liter.
10. Are these quantities enough to start to compare to straight enzyme products:
Since we don't have any information on the enzyme content of current "straight enzyme" products, it is difficult to answer this question. It is also a function of dosing of the product (i.e., how much, how often). In general, one can assume that the customer could have more control over initial enzyme concentration by adding a prepared enzyme product. However, bacterial cultures can produce competitive amounts of enzyme after a short colonization period. Bacteria can grow very quickly, doubling their populations in as little as 20-40 minutes. In some applications, it is common to "boost" bacterial colonization by adding a small amount of prepared enzyme to begin degrading the available food. This is often done in composting processes to jump-start the bacterial/fungal growth.
11. If you use just Enzymes, how many different enzymes would you need to use to effectively eliminate grease, oils, proteins, salts, chemicals and food in a waste stream:
Again, somewhat difficult to answer. This depends on what you mean by "eliminate". Significant degradation would require, at a minimum, several of each of the hydrolytic enzymes: proteases, cellulases, xylanases, amylases, lipases, pectinases, and esterases. Ideally, you would also need oxidative enzymes to degrade recalcitrant materials. Oxidative enzymes are expensive and impractical to manufacture and they require complex co-factors. This type of enzyme is needed to degrade fatty acids, for example.
12. If grease, oils, proteins, salts, chemicals or other bio-degradables are broken down will they regroup in the pipe or ponds again and reform to clog pipes and ponds:
This depends upon how far the grease and oil are broken down. Fats are mainly composed of molecules called triglycerides. Triglycerides contain 3 long-chain fatty acids linked to a 3-carbon backbone (glycerol). The first step in the degradation of triglycerides is the cleavage of the 3 bonds that link the 3 fatty acids to the glycerol backbone. Lipases and esterases are the enzymes that catalyze this first step. While the reverse reaction is possible, it is energetically unfavorable, and the bonds will not re-form (expect under special circumstances). Generally, lipases will cleave one bond at a time to generate free fatty acids and mono- and di-glycerides. The free fatty acids can combine with calcium ions to form insoluble salts. These salts could cause clogs. However, bacteria, unlike straight enzyme products, have the ability to further degrade and utilize the free fatty acids.
13. What does happen to proteins, fats, oils and cellulose?
They are degraded over time if bacteria or appropriate enzymes are present. The more complex the "food", the more time and enzyme it will take to break it down.
14. Will proteins, fats, oils, cellulose and other bio-degradables break down when you have just a few strains of enzymes:
(See answer #12) The wider the variety of enzymes, the more effective and efficient the degradation. Lipases, for example, vary in the range of fatty acid chain length that they can accept as substrate when attacking triglycerides. Some prefer triglycerides with short-chain fatty acid substituents; others prefer long chain fatty acids. One or two lipases in a product will not be effective for all triglycerides.
15. If you have oils in the water, will it encapsulate the enzymes or bacteria?
Most enzymes and bacteria are hydrophilic, or water loving. They naturally repel oil but can exist at an oil/water interface. Under certain conditions when the oil concentration is much greater than the water concentration, an emulsion can form in which water drops containing enzymes/bacteria are dispersed throughout the oil.
16. Does aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria contribute to odors or eliminate them:
Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria do not generate the offensive compounds (e.g., hydrogen sulfide) that cause odors.
17. Some facilities will only use air and indigenous bacterium saying any other added bacteria cause odors, can this happen:
The odors are a function of the air supply. The odors are typically caused by anaerobes. Anaerobic bacteria are always present in indigenous populations, and can thrive in pockets of low oxygen concentration, even under aerobic conditions. High quality bacterial products are free of contamination by anaerobes and will not cause odors. However, if bacterial products are added to a system and the air supply is not increased proportionately to accommodate the increase in biological activity, the whole system will go into oxygen deprivation and the indigenous anaerobes will begin to thrive and generate odors. If bacteria are added, the air supply must be carefully monitored and increased accordingly to prevent odors from the indigenous population.
18. Approx how many enzyme types would it take to effectively control waste in a waste stream considering the bio-degradables it contained.
(See question #11)
19. How does this compare with using the NatureClean -33 formula?
NatureClean -33 contains 60 different bacterial strains, each selected for its efficiency at degrading certain waste materials. With the bacterial product, the content of the waste stream determines how many enzymes are produced, in what sequence, at what concentration, and for what duration. The bacteria function as millions of tiny enzyme factories to produce the correct balance of degradative power. This formulation has been derived after a 20 yr long trial and error process. It has been specifically formulated to break down through aerobic and facultative anaerobic action, all the biodegradable substances in the wastewater. It is also formulated with H2S degrading bacteria and able to work in a pH range of 2.0 to 10.0. It has been formulated for the breakdown of nitrates, nitrites, phosphorus, salts, medicinal and various other chemicals. NatureClean-33 also contains SRO (slow release oxygen) to allow full activity of the bacteria even in low oxygen situations.