WASTE WATER POLLUTANTS AND TECHNOLOGIES

 

POLLUTANTS IN SEWAGE

  1. BOD (Bio Chemical oxygen demand)
  2. COD (Chemical oxygen demand)
  3. TSS (Total suspended solids)
  4. pH
  5. Oil & grease surfactants
  6. Pharmaceuticals
  7. Nitrates, salts & phosphates

 

1. BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND BOD

  • The BOD is an important measurement of water quality.
  • It is a measure of the amount of oxigen needed by bacteri and other organisms to oxidize the organic matter present in the water sampl over a period of 5 days.

 

2. CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND COD

  • COD measures all organic carbon with the exception of some aeromatics (Benzine, Toluene, Phenols etc.), which are not completely occidized in the reaction.
  • COD is a chemical oxidation reaction.
  • Ammonia will not be oxidized.

3. TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS

  • Total suspended solids (TSS) include all particles suspended in water which will not pass through a filter.
  • As levels of TSS increase, a water body begins to lose its ability to support a diversity of aquatic life.
  • Suspended solids absorb heat from sunlight, which increases water temperature and subsequently decreases levels of dissolved oxygen (warmer water holds less oxygen than cooler water).

 

 TECHNOLOGIES

  1. Moving bed bio reactor (MBBR)
  2. Submerged aerated fixed film (SAFF)
  3. Sequential batch reactor (SBR)
  4. Electro oxidation
  5. Membrane bio reactor (MBR)
  6. Rotating biological contactor (RBC)
  7. Activated sludge process

 

 

 

 

1. MOVING BED BIO REACTOR MBBR

  • The Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR) offers 10 Times the Loading in 1/5 the time. The most effective and efficient system.
  • In the MBBR bio film technology, the bio film grows protected within engineered plastic carriers, which are carefully designed with high internal surface area. These bio film carriers are suspended and thoroughly mixed throughout the water phase.
  • With this technology it is possible to handle extremely high loading conditions without any problems of clogging, and treat industrial and municipal wastewater on a relatively small footprint.

 

THE PRINCIPLES OF THE MOVING BED FILM BIO REACTOR (MBBR)

mb

DIAGRAM OF MBBR

MBBR1

PURIFICATION STAGES

  1. Preliminary clarification and sludge storage.
  2. Biological purification through bio media stage 1
  3. Biological purification through bio media stage 2
  4. Final clarification.

 

MBBR IS THE MOST EFFICIENT SYSTEM AVAILABLE

  • Assisting Moving Bed (AMB) offer 10 Times the Loading in 1/5 the time
  • AMB Bio Media = 950 m2/m3 Surface Area inside the NatureClean-EEC WWTP
  • AMB = Clog Free Operation & Self Cleaning Systems
  • Bio Film Grows on the AMB Media and Offer Sheltered & Robust Operation
  • No Backwash Required. Minimum Service Requirements = Mess Free Operation
  • NatureClean - EEC Package Plants Meet Stringent Effluent Standards Consistently

 

MB2MB2

NatureClean - EEC Basic MBBR Process

  1. Screen
  2. Settling
  3. Buffer & Feed
  4. Rotation of AMB Bio media by Air
  5. Final Settling & Sludge Recycling
  6. Effluent for Recycling, Irrigation, Toilet Flush, or Meet any Local Standard.

 

 

NatureClean - EEC MBBR systems can be customized to handle Nitrate, Salt, Phosphate, Ammonia, Nutrient and Pharmaceuticals Removal

NatureClean - EEC MBBR plants are compact, meet stringent consent standards, low capital cost, low operational cost, delivered inside standard ISO containers, modular, skid mounted ready to be operated, easy start-up, handles shock loading, effective specialized nitrate, salt, ammonia, nutrient and pharmaceuticals removal, easy to install, easy to move around and expand for sequential projects. Complete filtration and UV disinfection as required. The clean effluent from this system can be used for irrigation, toilet flushing, or meet any stringent effluent requirements.

 

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2. SUBMERGED AERATED FIXED FILM

  • This technology utilizes an aerobic fixed film process that is a combination submerged attached growth and activated sludge processes.
  • This system is designed to be installed into a two compartment, where the first compartment provides majority of BOD removal, and the second compartment polishes the BOD. Rigid block-type media is submerged within the treatment module, providing surface area for microbial growth.

 

DIAGRAM OF SUBMERGED AEROBIC FIXED FILM

saff3

 

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3. SEQUENTIAL BATCH BIO REACTOR

The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is a fill-and draw activated sludge system for wastewater treatment. In this system, wastewater is added to a single “batch” reactor, treated to remove undesirable components, and then discharged. Equalization, aeration, and clarification can all be achieved using a single batch reactor.

 

DIAGRAM OF SEQUENTIAL BATCH REACTOR

sequential

  1. Wastewater fills the tank, mixing with biomass that settles during the previous cycle.
  2. Air is added to the tank to aid biological growth and felicitate waste reduction.
  3. Mixing and Aeration stop during this stage to allow solids to settle.
  4. Clarified effluent is discharged.
  5. Sludge can be removed during this stage.

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4. ELECTRO OXIDATION

  • Electrolyser solution is injected into the electrolytic chamber.
  • The electrolyser solution is an electrically charged solution which releases oxidizing agents into the electrolytic chamber.
  • Electrical current is also applied into the electrolytic chamber.
  • Under the dual effect of electrolyser solution, and electrical current the colloidal impurities get de-stabilized resulting in agglomeration and flotation and subsequent removal.
  • Dissolved impurities contributing to BOD / COD also get oxidized due to the oxidizing agents released by the electrolytic solution. The combined effect of these actions results in BOD / COD reduction.

 

DIAGRAM OF ELECTRO OXIDATION

ELECTRO

 

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5. MEMBRANE BIO REACTOR

  • The membrane bioreactor (MBR) process is a technology that consists of a suspended growth biological reactor integrated with an ultrafiltration membrane system, using the hollow fiber membrane.
  • Essentially, the ultrafiltration system replaces the solids separation function of secondary clarifiers and sand filters in a conventional activated sludge system.
  • Ultrafiltration membranes are immersed in an aeration tank, in direct contact with mixed liquor.

 

DIAGRAM OF MEMBRANE REACTOR

membrane

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6. ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR

  • A rotating biological contactor consists of a series of discs or media blocks mounted on a shaft which is driven so that the media rotates at right angles to the flow of sewage. 
  • The discs or media blocks are normally made of plastic (polythene, PVC, expanded polystyrene) and are contained in a trough or tank so that about 40% of their area is immersed.
  • The biological growth that becomes attached to the media assimilates the organic materials in the wastewater.
  • Aeration is provided by the rotating action, which exposes the media to the air after contacting them with the wastewater.

DIAGRAM OF ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR

rotate

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7. ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

  • The activated sludge process is a wastewater treatment method in which the carbonaceous organic matter of wastewater provides an energy source for the production of new cells for a mixed population of microorganisms in an aquatic aerobic environment.
  • The microbes convert carbon into cell tissue and oxidized end products that include carbon dioxide and water.
  • The activated sludge process is effective but slow and not as efficient as other processes.

 

DIAGRAM OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE

activated sludge

 

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